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Optimizing Athletic Performance: A Comprehensive Guide to Sports Nutrition and Athletic Supplements

Updated: Jun 6

Boosting athletic performance involves more than just rigorous training; it requires fueling your body with the right nutrients. At Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic, we specialize in sports nutrition and provide a targeted approach to athletic supplements, helping you enhance your performance effectively. Here's a comprehensive guide on Sports Nutrition and how you can choose and use supplements to enhance your athletic performance:

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

  • Overview of Athletic Performance and Nutritional Needs

  • Athlete's Food Pyramid Overview

  • Introduction to the Athlete's Food Pyramid

  • Choosing the Right Athletic Supplements for Your Sport

  • Tailoring Supplementation to Specific Athletic Goals

  • Guidelines for Endurance Athletes, Strength Athletes, and General Fitness

  • Correct Dosage of Sports Supplements

  • Maximizing Benefits and Minimizing Risks

  • Detailed Dosage Recommendations

  • Top Sports Supplement Brands

  • Recommended Brands for Quality and Effectiveness

  • Overview of Optimum Nutrition, Garden of Life, and MuscleTech

  • Understanding the Duration of Supplement Use

  • Long-term vs. Short-term Supplement Strategies

  • Importance of Cycling and Breaks

  • Optimal Timing for Taking Pre and Post-Workout Supplements

  • Strategic Supplement Timing for Maximum Effectiveness

  • Pre-Workout, Post-Workout, and Nighttime Supplements

  • Latest Innovations in Sports Supplements

  • New and Effective Supplements on the Market

  • Adaptogens, Collagen Peptides, Nootropics, and CBD

  • What Supplements Work and What Don’t

  • Effective vs. Ineffective Supplements

  • Scientific Evidence and Practical Recommendations

  • Conclusion

  • Summary and Final Thoughts on Nutritional Strategies for Athletes

Athlete's Food Pyramid

The "Athlete's Food Pyramid" is a structured nutritional guide tailored specifically for athletes to optimize their performance and overall health. The pyramid is divided into tiers, each representing a fundamental aspect of an athlete's diet, prioritizing from the base to the peak based on the foundation and supplementation needs.

Athlete's Food Pyramid
Athlete's Food Pyramid

Here's a breakdown of each tier:

Tier 1: High-Quality Whole Foods

This base layer emphasizes the importance of whole foods, which form the foundation of an athlete's diet. High-quality whole foods include:

  • Lean Proteins: Chicken, fish, eggs, and tofu provide essential amino acids for muscle repair and growth.

  • Whole Grains: Brown rice, quinoa, and whole-wheat products offer sustained energy through complex carbohydrates.

  • Fruits and Vegetables: A variety of fruits and vegetables supply vital vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants to support overall health and recovery.

Tier 2: Micronutrients

The second tier focuses on micronutrients, which are crucial for optimal body function and performance. This includes:

  • Vitamins and Minerals: Essential for energy production, immune function, and bone health. Athletes should ensure they get adequate amounts of iron, calcium, vitamin D, and B vitamins.

  • Fatty Acids: Sources like avocados, nuts, seeds, and oils are important for heart health and inflammatory response.

Tier 3: Nutrient Timing

This tier addresses the timing of nutrient intake, which can significantly impact performance and recovery. Key aspects include:

  • Pre-Workout Meals: Should include carbohydrates and protein to fuel the body and prevent muscle loss.

  • Post-Workout Meals: Need to provide protein for muscle repair and carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores depleted during exercise.

Tier 4: Sport Fuel

Specifically designed for competitive athletes, this tier includes:

  • Energy Gels and Drinks: Provide quick, digestible energy during long training sessions or competitions.

  • Electrolyte Replenishers: Important during extended workouts to maintain hydration and electrolyte balance.

Tier 5: Supplements

The top of the pyramid focuses on supplements. While not essential for everyone, they can benefit athletes with specific needs or deficiencies. Common supplements include:

  • Protein Powders: Help meet protein requirements.

  • Creatine: Enhances power and muscle recovery.

  • BCAAs: Support muscle recovery and reduce exercise fatigue.

  • Multivitamins: Fill nutritional gaps.

Choosing the Right Athletic Supplements for Your Sport

Choosing the right supplement depends on your specific goals and the type of sport you are involved in. Here are some general guidelines:

Essential Supplements for Endurance Athletes: Enhancing Performance and Hydration

Endurance athletes, such as long-distance runners, cyclists, and triathletes, require supplements that support prolonged physical exertion and optimize hydration. The right supplements can enhance performance, delay fatigue, and support recovery.

Key Supplements:

  • Beta-Alanine: This amino acid helps buffer acid in muscles, reducing fatigue and improving endurance. Recommended dosage is 2-5 grams per day, ideally split into smaller doses to minimize tingling side effects.

  • Electrolytes: Maintaining electrolyte balance is crucial for preventing dehydration and muscle cramps. Supplements containing sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium should be taken during long training sessions or competitions.

  • Carbohydrates: Fast-digesting carbohydrates, such as gels or drinks, provide quick energy and are essential for maintaining performance during prolonged exercise. Consuming 30-60 grams of carbohydrates per hour during endurance events is recommended.

Key Supplements for Strength Athletes: Boosting Muscle Growth and Recovery

Strength athletes, including bodybuilders, powerlifters, and those involved in high-intensity resistance training, benefit from supplements that enhance muscle growth, strength, and recovery.

Key Supplements:

  • Creatine: One of the most researched supplements, creatine increases muscle phosphocreatine stores, enhancing ATP production for improved strength and power output. A loading phase of 20 grams per day for 5-7 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 3-5 grams per day, is effective.

  • Protein Powders: Whey protein is rapidly absorbed and ideal post-workout, while casein protein is slower-digesting, perfect for nighttime recovery. Aim for 20-30 grams of protein post-workout and before bed.

  • Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs): BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) stimulate muscle protein synthesis and reduce muscle breakdown. Consuming 5-10 grams before and after workouts can be beneficial.

Optimal Supplements for General Fitness: Supporting Health and Wellness

Individuals engaging in general fitness activities, such as gym-goers and recreational athletes, need supplements that support overall health and wellness. These supplements ensure that their bodies function optimally and recover efficiently from workouts.

Key Supplements:

  • Multivitamins: A high-quality multivitamin can fill nutritional gaps and ensure the body receives essential vitamins and minerals. Look for a formula that includes vitamins A, C, D, E, and B-complex, along with minerals like magnesium and zinc.

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3s have anti-inflammatory properties, support heart health, and improve joint function. A daily intake of 1-3 grams of EPA and DHA combined is recommended.

  • Probiotics: Gut health is crucial for overall wellness, immune function, and nutrient absorption. Taking a daily probiotic supplement with diverse strains can help maintain a healthy gut microbiome.

Important Notice:
The dosages mentioned are general recommendations and for most cases not suitable for everyone. Individual needs can vary significantly. For personalized advice and the right dosage tailored to your specific goals and health conditions, consultation with Dr. Sumaiya is mandatory. Schedule an appointment at Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic to get expert guidance and a customized supplementation plan.

Correct Dosage of Sports Supplements: Maximizing Benefits Safely

Determining the correct supplement dosage is crucial to maximizing the benefits of your sports nutrition regime while minimizing potential side effects. Here, we explore how to properly calculate dosages for some of the most commonly used athletic supplements

Creatine Supplementation: Phases and Benefits for Athletes

Creatine is one of the most researched and effective supplements for enhancing athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense energy. Proper creatine supplementation involves two main phases: the loading phase and the maintenance phase. Here’s a detailed explanation of each phase and some essential tips for effective creatine use.

Loading Phase


  • Amount: 20 grams per day or 0.3 gms/kg/day

  • Frequency: Divided into 4 doses of 5 grams each


  • Time Frame: 5-7 days


  • Muscle Saturation: The primary goal of the loading phase is to rapidly saturate your muscles with creatine. This high dosage over a short period increases the creatine phosphate stores in your muscles more quickly than starting with a lower dose.

  • Quick Improvements: By saturating the muscles faster, athletes can experience quicker improvements in strength, power, and high-intensity performance. This phase is particularly beneficial when you need rapid results, such as before a competition.

Maintenance Phase


  • Amount: 5 grams per day or 0.03 gms/kg/day.


  • Time Frame: Continuous, with occasional breaks (e.g., 8 weeks on, 2 weeks off)


  • Sustained Levels: After the initial loading phase, the maintenance phase involves a lower daily dose of creatine to keep muscle creatine stores elevated. This helps maintain the performance benefits achieved during the loading phase.

  • Ongoing Benefits: Continuous supplementation ensures ongoing support for strength, power, and recovery during training sessions. Taking occasional breaks (like 2 weeks off after 8 weeks of use) can help prevent potential desensitization to creatine.

Tips for Creatine Use


  • Importance: Creatine draws water into muscle cells, so staying well-hydrated is crucial to avoid dehydration and to support kidney function.

  • Recommendation: Drink plenty of water throughout the day, especially during the loading phase when intake is higher.


  • Flexibility: Creatine can be taken at any time of day, but timing can enhance its effectiveness.

  • Post-Workout: Taking creatine post-workout with a carbohydrate source can improve its uptake into the muscles. Carbohydrates cause an insulin spike, which helps transport creatine more efficiently.

Proper creatine supplementation involves understanding and correctly implementing both the loading and maintenance phases. The loading phase quickly saturates muscles with creatine, leading to rapid performance improvements, while the maintenance phase sustains these benefits over time. Always stay hydrated and consider timing your intake post-workout for maximum effectiveness. Remember, consultation with Dr. Sumaiya is essential to tailor these guidelines to your specific needs and ensure safe and effective use of creatine.

Important Notice: The dosages mentioned above are general recommendations and may not be suitable for everyone. Individual needs can vary significantly. For personalized advice and the right dosage tailored to your specific goals and health conditions, consultation with Dr. Sumaiya is mandatory. Schedule an appointment at Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic to get expert guidance and a customized supplementation plan.

Protein Supplements: Importance of Whey and Casein for Athletes

General Recommendation:

  • Dosage: 1.6 to 2.2 grams per kilogram of body weight per day.

  • Purpose: Supports muscle repair and growth, especially after strenuous exercise.


  • Dosage: 20-30 grams of high-quality protein.

  • Timing: Within 30 minutes after training to maximize muscle protein synthesis.

Daily Intake:

  • Distribution: Spread your protein intake evenly across meals.

  • Sources: Include a mix of protein powders (e.g., whey, casein) and whole foods (e.g., chicken, fish, legumes).

Special Considerations:

  • For Weight Loss: Higher protein intake (around 2.2 grams/kg) can help preserve lean muscle mass during caloric deficits.

  • For Muscle Gain: Adequate protein supports hypertrophy when combined with resistance training.

Benefits of BCAAs for Athletes: When and How to Use Them

General Recommendation:

  • Dosage: 10-20 grams per day.

  • Purpose: Reduces muscle soreness, decreases muscle fatigue, and supports muscle protein synthesis.


  • Dosage: 5-10 grams.

  • Purpose: Provides a quick source of amino acids to fuel muscles and prevent catabolism during exercise.


  • Dosage: 5-10 grams.

  • Purpose: Aids in muscle recovery and reduces delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS).

Additional Tips for BCAA Use:

  • Intra-Workout: Consider taking BCAAs during longer training sessions to sustain energy levels and reduce muscle breakdown.

  • With Protein: If your protein intake is sufficient and includes BCAAs (as most complete proteins do), additional BCAAs may not be necessary.

Important Considerations for Dosage


  • Dosages should be tailored to individual needs, goals, body weight, and activity levels. Consulting with Dr Sumaiya Petiwala, can provide personalized recommendations.


  • Regular intake as per the recommended dosage is essential for seeing consistent benefits. Sporadic use may not yield the desired results.


  • Keep track of your body’s response to supplements. Adjust dosages if you experience any side effects or if your training intensity changes.

Quality of Supplements:

  • Ensure that you use high-quality, reputable brands that provide accurate dosages and have undergone third-party testing.

By adhering to these dosage guidelines, athletes can maximize the effectiveness of their supplements while minimizing the risk of side effects. Proper dosing is a critical component of a successful supplementation strategy, supporting peak performance and optimal recovery.

Top Sports Supplement Brands: Choosing Quality and Effectiveness

Quality is key when it comes to supplementation. Choosing reputable brands ensures you get high-quality products that are both effective and safe. Here are some of the most impactful brands known for their rigorous testing, high standards, and positive customer feedback.

Optimum Nutrition


  • Reputation: Optimum Nutrition (ON) is one of the most trusted names in the supplement industry. Established in 1986, ON has built a reputation for producing high-quality supplements that deliver consistent results.

  • Product Range: ON offers a wide range of products, including protein powders, amino acids, pre-workouts, and vitamins.

Key Products:

  • Gold Standard 100% Whey Protein: This is one of the best-selling protein powders globally. It offers a high-quality protein source that is easily digestible and comes in a variety of flavors.

  • Creatine Monohydrate: ON's micronized creatine monohydrate is known for its purity and effectiveness in enhancing strength and power.

  • Amino Energy: A versatile product that combines amino acids with natural energy sources, perfect for pre-workout or anytime energy boost.

Certifications and Testing:

  • Third-Party Testing: Optimum Nutrition products undergo rigorous third-party testing to ensure purity, potency, and quality.

  • GMP Certified: The manufacturing facilities are Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) certified, ensuring high standards of production.

Garden of Life


  • Reputation: Garden of Life is a leader in the natural and organic supplement market. They focus on clean, traceable, and sustainable ingredients.

  • Product Range: Their product lineup includes vitamins, probiotics, protein powders, and herbals.

Key Products:

  • Vitamin Code Raw Multivitamins: These multivitamins are made from whole foods and contain live probiotics and enzymes, ensuring better absorption and digestion.

  • RAW Protein & Greens: A plant-based protein powder that combines high-quality protein with organic greens for a nutritional boost.

  • Dr. Formulated Probiotics: Developed by Dr. David Perlmutter, these probiotics are designed to support digestive and immune health with high potency and diverse strains.

Certifications and Testing:

  • Organic Certification: Many of their products are USDA Organic certified.

  • Non-GMO Project Verified: Their products are verified by the Non-GMO Project, ensuring no genetically modified organisms are used.

  • NSF Certified: Garden of Life adheres to NSF International standards, ensuring product safety and quality.



  • Reputation: MuscleTech is known for its innovative approach to sports nutrition, backed by scientific research and clinical studies. They are a top choice among bodybuilders and strength athletes.

  • Product Range: MuscleTech offers products across various categories, including proteins, pre-workouts, weight loss supplements, and muscle builders.

Key Products:

  • Nitro-Tech: A popular whey protein powder that includes added creatine for enhanced muscle building.

  • Cell-Tech: A scientifically formulated creatine supplement that combines creatine monohydrate with fast-digesting carbohydrates for rapid absorption and increased muscle volume.

  • Hydroxycut Hardcore Elite: A thermogenic weight loss supplement designed to boost metabolism and increase energy levels.

Certifications and Testing:

  • Informed-Choice Certified: Many MuscleTech products are certified by Informed-Choice, which tests for banned substances and ensures product quality.

  • Clinically Dosed: MuscleTech emphasizes clinically dosed ingredients, meaning their supplements contain effective amounts of active ingredients as used in clinical studies.

Choosing supplements from reputable brands like Optimum Nutrition, Garden of Life, and MuscleTech ensures that you are getting high-quality products that are safe, effective, and scientifically validated. These brands are known for their rigorous testing standards and certifications, providing athletes and fitness enthusiasts with the confidence that they are fueling their bodies with the best possible supplements.

Important Notice: The information provided here is for general purposes only. Individual needs can vary significantly. For personalized advice and the right supplements tailored to your specific goals and health conditions, consultation with Dr. Sumaiya is mandatory. Schedule an appointment at Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic to get expert guidance and a customized supplementation plan.

Understanding the Duration of Supplement Use in Sports Nutrition

The duration of supplement usage can vary depending on the athlete's goals, the type of supplement, and individual needs. Understanding how long to take each supplement is crucial for maximizing benefits and avoiding potential side effects. Here’s a closer look at how different supplements are used over various durations.

Short-term Supplements

Pre-Workout Supplements:

  • Examples: Caffeine, beta-alanine, nitric oxide boosters

  • Usage: These supplements are typically used only on training days to enhance performance, focus, and endurance.

  • Duration: Short-term, taken 15-30 minutes before workouts.

  • Purpose: To provide a temporary boost in energy, improve exercise performance, and delay fatigue. These supplements should not be taken continuously without breaks to avoid tolerance build-up and potential side effects like jitteriness or insomnia.

  • Breaks: It's advisable to cycle off pre-workout supplements periodically (e.g., after 4-6 weeks of use) to reset tolerance levels.


  • Dosage: 200-400 mg per day.

  • Usage: Taken before workouts to increase alertness and improve performance.

  • Duration: Short-term, used on training days only.


  • Dosage: 2-5 grams per day.

  • Usage: Consumed daily to build up carnosine levels in the muscles but is particularly effective when used pre-workout.

  • Duration: Loading phase of 4-6 weeks, then maintenance.

Nitric Oxide Boosters:

  • Examples: L-arginine, L-citrulline

  • Usage: Taken before workouts to enhance blood flow and muscle pumps.

  • Duration: Short-term, used on training days.

Long-term Supplements


  • Usage: Taken daily as a part of a balanced diet to ensure adequate intake of essential vitamins and minerals.

  • Duration: Long-term, continuous use is recommended for general health maintenance.

  • Purpose: To fill nutritional gaps, support immune function, and enhance overall well-being. Consistent use helps prevent deficiencies that can impair performance and recovery.

  • Breaks: Multivitamins generally do not require cycling off, but periodic assessment of dietary intake and nutritional needs is advisable.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

  • Examples: Fish oil, flaxseed oil

  • Usage: Consumed daily to support cardiovascular health, reduce inflammation, and improve joint function.

  • Duration: Long-term, continuous use is recommended.

  • Purpose: To provide essential fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own, contributing to heart health, brain function, and reduced inflammation.

  • Breaks: Omega-3 supplements can be taken continuously without breaks, but quality and dosage should be monitored.


  • Usage: Taken daily, even on non-training days, to maintain elevated muscle creatine levels.

  • Duration: Long-term, often cycled (e.g., 8 weeks on, 2 weeks off) to maintain effectiveness.

  • Purpose: Supports muscle strength, power, and recovery by increasing the availability of ATP in muscle cells.

  • Breaks: Periodic breaks are recommended to prevent desensitization.


  • Usage: Consumed daily to maintain a healthy gut microbiome, which is crucial for digestion, immune function, and overall health.

  • Duration: Long-term, continuous use is recommended.

  • Purpose: To support gut health and improve nutrient absorption.

  • Breaks: Regular use is beneficial, but varying the strains and types of probiotics periodically can enhance their effectiveness.

Vitamin D:

  • Usage: Taken daily, especially in regions with limited sunlight exposure.

  • Duration: Long-term, continuous use is necessary for maintaining optimal levels.

  • Purpose: Supports bone health, immune function, and muscle performance.

  • Breaks: Continuous use is usually recommended, especially during winter months.

Important Considerations

Monitoring and Adjusting:

  • Regular assessment of supplement effectiveness and any potential side effects is crucial. Adjust dosages and cycles based on individual response and changes in training intensity or goals.

  • Consulting with a healthcare professional or nutritionist ensures that supplement usage aligns with overall health and specific athletic needs.


  • Supplement duration and dosages should be personalized based on individual needs, health status, and athletic goals. What works for one athlete might not be suitable for another.

Quality and Safety:

  • Choose high-quality supplements from reputable brands to ensure safety and efficacy. Be aware of any potential interactions with medications or other supplements.

By understanding the appropriate duration for supplement use, athletes can effectively incorporate these tools into their training and recovery routines, optimizing their performance and health over the short and long term.

Optimal Timing for Taking Pre and Post-Workout Supplements

Timing can significantly influence a supplement's effectiveness. Proper timing ensures that your body absorbs and utilizes the nutrients when they are most needed. Here's a detailed look at how to time your supplements for maximum benefit:



  • Enhance performance, focus, and endurance during exercise.

  • Delay the onset of fatigue and improve strength output.

Key Supplements:


  • Timing: 30-60 minutes before exercise.

  • Dosage: 200-400 mg.

  • Effect: Increases alertness, energy levels, and performance. Caffeine can also help mobilize fat stores for energy, enhancing endurance.

  • Tips: Start with a lower dose to assess tolerance, especially if you are sensitive to stimulants.


  • Timing: 30-60 minutes before exercise.

  • Dosage: 2-5 grams per day.

  • Effect: Reduces muscle fatigue by buffering lactic acid build-up, allowing for more extended periods of high-intensity exercise.

  • Tips: Consistent daily use is needed to maintain elevated muscle carnosine levels. Some individuals may experience a harmless tingling sensation (paresthesia) with higher doses.

Nitric Oxide Boosters (e.g., L-Arginine, L-Citrulline):

  • Timing: 30-60 minutes before exercise.

  • Dosage: 3-6 grams of L-citrulline or 5-10 grams of L-arginine.

  • Effect: Enhances blood flow to muscles, improving nutrient delivery and muscle pumps during exercise.

  • Tips: Combining these with other pre-workout ingredients can synergize their effects.



  • Promote muscle repair and growth.

  • Replenish glycogen stores and reduce muscle soreness.

Key Supplements:

Protein Shakes:

  • Timing: Within 30 minutes after exercise.

  • Dosage: 20-30 grams of protein.

  • Effect: Provides essential amino acids for muscle repair and growth. Whey protein is rapidly absorbed, making it ideal post-workout.

  • Tips: Combine with carbohydrates to enhance glycogen replenishment and insulin response, which helps drive amino acids into muscles.


  • Timing: Immediately after exercise.

  • Dosage: 3-5 grams.

  • Effect: Replenishes muscle creatine stores, supporting ATP production for subsequent workouts and aiding in recovery.

  • Tips: Creatine is more effectively absorbed when taken with a carbohydrate source post-workout.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs):

  • Timing: Immediately after exercise.

  • Dosage: 5-10 grams.

  • Effect: Reduces muscle protein breakdown and promotes muscle protein synthesis, aiding in recovery and reducing soreness.

  • Tips: Can also be consumed during the workout for sustained benefits.



  • Support overnight muscle repair and recovery.

  • Improve sleep quality and hormonal balance.

Key Supplements:

Casein Protein:

  • Timing: Before bed.

  • Dosage: 20-40 grams.

  • Effect: Slow-digesting protein that provides a steady release of amino acids throughout the night, preventing muscle breakdown.

  • Tips: Ideal for those looking to build muscle or prevent muscle loss during periods of fasting, such as overnight.

ZMA (Zinc, Magnesium Aspartate, and Vitamin B6):

  • Timing: 30-60 minutes before bed.

  • Dosage: As per product instructions (typically around 30 mg of zinc, 450 mg of magnesium, and 10.5 mg of vitamin B6).

  • Effect: Supports muscle recovery, boosts immune function, and improves sleep quality. Zinc and magnesium are critical for hormone production, including testosterone.

  • Tips: Avoid taking with calcium-rich foods or supplements, as calcium can interfere with zinc and magnesium absorption.


  • Timing: 30-60 minutes before bed.

  • Dosage: 0.5-5 mg.

  • Effect: Helps regulate sleep cycles and improve sleep quality, essential for recovery.

  • Tips: Useful for athletes who have trouble falling asleep or need to adjust to different time zones.

The timing of supplements plays a crucial role in their effectiveness. By strategically timing the intake of pre-workout, post-workout, and nighttime supplements, athletes can optimize their performance, recovery, and overall health. Always consider your specific goals and individual response when timing your supplements, and consult with Dr Sumiaya to tailor your supplementation strategy to your needs.

Latest Innovations in Sports Supplements: What’s New and Effective

Staying informed about the latest supplement innovations can help you gain an edge in your athletic performance and overall well-being. Here are some of the most recent and promising supplements that are gaining popularity in the market.


Adaptogens are natural substances that help the body adapt to stress and exert a normalizing effect upon bodily processes. They are particularly beneficial for athletes who face physical and mental stress due to intense training and competition.

Rhodiola Rosea:

  • Benefits: Helps combat fatigue, improve exercise performance, and enhance mental focus. Rhodiola is known for its anti-fatigue properties and its ability to improve oxygen utilization.

  • Usage: Commonly taken in doses of 200-600 mg per day.

  • Effect: Increases energy, enhances endurance, and reduces the perception of effort during physical activities.

Other Adaptogens:

  • Eleuthero (Siberian Ginseng): Boosts energy and stamina.

  • Holy Basil: Reduces inflammation and supports immune function.

Collagen Peptides

Collagen peptides are short chains of amino acids derived from collagen, a protein that is abundant in the human body and essential for the health of skin, joints, and connective tissues.

Joint Health:

  • Benefits: Collagen supplementation can improve joint health by reducing inflammation and supporting the repair of cartilage. This is particularly beneficial for athletes who put a lot of stress on their joints.

  • Usage: Typically taken in doses of 10-20 grams per day.

  • Effect: Promotes joint comfort, reduces pain, and enhances mobility.

Skin Elasticity:

  • Benefits: Collagen supports skin elasticity and hydration, helping to reduce signs of aging and improve skin texture.

  • Usage: Often included in beauty supplements alongside vitamins and antioxidants.

  • Effect: Enhances skin hydration, reduces wrinkles, and supports overall skin health.

Bone Health:

  • Benefits: Collagen peptides can support bone density and strength, which is crucial for preventing injuries and maintaining overall bone health.

  • Usage: Integrated into daily dietary supplements or protein powders.

  • Effect: Strengthens bones and supports the structural integrity of the skeletal system.


Nootropics, also known as cognitive enhancers, are supplements that improve brain function. They are increasingly popular among athletes for their ability to enhance focus, mental clarity, and overall cognitive performance.


  • Benefits: Boosts acetylcholine levels in the brain, which is crucial for memory and learning.

  • Usage: Commonly taken in doses of 300-600 mg per day.

  • Effect: Improves mental clarity, enhances focus, and supports cognitive function during high-intensity training.

Rhodiola Rosea (Also an Adaptogen):

  • Benefits: In addition to its adaptogenic properties, it enhances cognitive function and reduces mental fatigue.

  • Usage: 200-600 mg per day.

  • Effect: Enhances mental performance and reduces perceived effort.


  • Benefits: Promotes relaxation without drowsiness, often used in combination with caffeine to enhance cognitive function and focus.

  • Usage: 100-200 mg per day.

  • Effect: Improves focus, reduces anxiety, and enhances cognitive performance.

Cannabidiol (CBD)

CBD is a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis plants. It has gained popularity for its potential benefits in recovery, inflammation reduction, and pain management.


  • Benefits: CBD helps reduce inflammation and pain, making it an effective supplement for recovery post-exercise.

  • Usage: Available in various forms including oils, capsules, and topical creams. Dosages vary widely, typically starting at 10-20 mg per day.

  • Effect: Reduces muscle soreness, promotes relaxation, and aids in quicker recovery.


  • Benefits: Improves sleep quality and duration, which is crucial for recovery and overall health.

  • Usage: Often taken before bedtime in doses of 10-50 mg.

  • Effect: Enhances sleep quality, leading to better recovery and performance.

Anxiety and Stress:

  • Benefits: Helps manage anxiety and stress, contributing to better mental health and performance under pressure.

  • Usage: Doses vary, typically starting at 10-20 mg per day.

  • Effect: Promotes a sense of calm and well-being.

Staying updated with the latest supplements can provide athletes with new tools to enhance their performance, recovery, and overall health. Adaptogens like ashwagandha and Rhodiola rosea help manage stress and improve recovery, while collagen peptides support joint health and skin elasticity. Nootropics enhance cognitive function, and CBD offers benefits for recovery and stress management. As always, it’s essential to consult with Dr. Sumaiya to determine the most suitable supplements for your individual needs and goals.

Important Notice: The information provided here is for general purposes only. Individual needs can vary significantly. For personalized advice and the right supplements tailored to your specific goals and health conditions, consultation with Dr. Sumaiya is mandatory. Schedule an appointment at Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic to get expert guidance and a customized supplementation plan.

What Supplements Work and What Don’t

It's essential to discern which supplements are effective and which aren't based on scientific evidence. The supplement industry is vast, with many products making bold claims. However, not all of these claims are supported by solid research. Here's a closer look at some effective supplements and those that are less effective or unnecessary.

Effective Supplements

Whey Protein:

  • Purpose: Builds and repairs muscle tissue.

  • Benefits: Whey protein is a complete protein, meaning it contains all nine essential amino acids necessary for muscle protein synthesis. It's quickly absorbed by the body, making it ideal for post-workout recovery.

  • Scientific Evidence: Numerous studies support the effectiveness of whey protein in enhancing muscle mass and strength when combined with resistance training.

  • Usage: Typically taken post-workout. Dosage varies, but 20-30 grams is a common recommendation.


  • Purpose: Increases muscle mass, strength, and exercise performance.

  • Benefits: Creatine enhances the body's ability to produce energy rapidly. With more energy, athletes can train harder and more often, leading to greater muscle gains.

  • Scientific Evidence: Creatine is one of the most researched and validated supplements for improving performance in high-intensity activities such as weightlifting and sprinting.

  • Usage: Commonly involves a loading phase of 20 grams per day for 5-7 days, followed by a maintenance phase of 5 grams per day.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids:

  • Purpose: Supports cardiovascular health, reduces inflammation, and improves joint function.

  • Benefits: Omega-3s are anti-inflammatory and can help reduce muscle soreness and improve recovery.

  • Scientific Evidence: Research indicates that omega-3 supplements can help reduce muscle damage and inflammation caused by intense exercise.

  • Usage: Typically taken daily in doses of 1-3 grams of combined EPA and DHA.


  • Purpose: Enhances muscular endurance by buffering acid in muscles.

  • Benefits: Increases carnosine levels in muscles, which helps delay the onset of fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

  • Scientific Evidence: Studies show that beta-alanine supplementation can improve performance in activities lasting 1-4 minutes.

  • Usage: 2-5 grams per day, often resulting in a tingling sensation (paresthesia) as a side effect.

Ineffective Supplements

Glutamine for Muscle Building:

  • Purpose: Often marketed for muscle growth.

  • Reality: While glutamine is critical for immune function and gut health, research does not support its effectiveness in significantly enhancing muscle building in healthy individuals.

  • Scientific Evidence: Studies indicate that glutamine supplementation does not provide additional benefits for muscle mass or strength beyond what is achieved with a balanced diet.

  • Usage: Although not effective for muscle building, glutamine can be beneficial for gut health and immune support, typically taken in doses of 5-10 grams per day.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) as a Standalone:

  • Purpose: Promoted for muscle recovery and reducing muscle soreness.

  • Reality: While BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) can aid in muscle recovery, their benefits are often overshadowed if the athlete already consumes sufficient protein from their diet.

  • Scientific Evidence: Research suggests that if protein intake is adequate (1.6-2.2 grams per kilogram of body weight), additional BCAA supplementation does not offer significant extra benefits.

  • Usage: If used, typical doses are 5-10 grams before or after workouts, but they are more beneficial when included as part of a complete protein source.

Fat Burners:

  • Purpose: Marketed for weight loss by increasing metabolism.

  • Reality: Many fat burners contain stimulants that can increase heart rate and blood pressure but do not significantly enhance fat loss in the absence of a caloric deficit and exercise.

  • Scientific Evidence: While some ingredients like caffeine and green tea extract can have minor effects on metabolism, the overall impact on weight loss is minimal without diet and exercise.

  • Usage: Often advised to be taken before workouts, but their safety and efficacy remain questionable.

Raspberry Ketones:

  • Purpose: Claimed to increase fat breakdown and boost metabolism.

  • Reality: Despite being popularized by media, there is little scientific evidence to support the efficacy of raspberry ketones for weight loss in humans.

  • Scientific Evidence: Most studies have been conducted in vitro or on animals, with insufficient human trials to back the claims.

  • Usage: Typically marketed in capsule form, but their effectiveness remains unproven.

Deer Antler Velvet:

  • Growth Factors: Claimed to contain growth factors like IGF-1, but scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness in enhancing athletic performance or muscle growth is lacking.

  • Regulatory Concerns: Some formulations may contain substances banned by sports organizations, posing a risk for athletes subject to drug testing.

Detox Teas:

  • Laxative Effect: Often contain diuretics and laxatives, which can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances rather than any real detoxification or weight loss benefits.

  • Nutrient Absorption: Prolonged use of detox teas can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to deficiencies.

Selecting the right supplements can significantly enhance athletic performance, recovery, and overall health. However, it's crucial to rely on scientifically backed products and avoid those with unsubstantiated claims. Effective supplements like whey protein, creatine, and omega-3 fatty acids have strong evidence supporting their benefits, while others like glutamine for muscle building and standalone BCAAs may not be necessary if you're already meeting your nutritional needs through a balanced diet. Be cautious of supplements like fat burners, raspberry ketones, and detox teas that are often marketed with exaggerated claims but lack robust scientific support.


At Dr. Sumaiya's Nutricare Clinic, we understand that supplements are only one part of a comprehensive approach to health and performance. By selecting the right supplements, dosing them correctly, and using reputable brands, athletes can safely enhance their performance. Remember, it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider to tailor your supplement plan to your specific needs and conditions.

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